Hanna Levenson

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Selected Publications


    Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the Locus of Control Construct (Vol. 1), New York: Academic Press, 15-63.
    The internal-external control construct was conceived as a generalized expectancy to perceive reinforcement either as contingent upon one's own behaviors (internal control) or as the result of focus beyond one's control and due to chance, fate, or powerful others (external control). The multidimensional conceptualization proposed here differentiates between two types of external orientation-belief in the basic unordered and random nature of the world and belief in the basic order and predictability of the world coupled with the expectancy that powerful others are in control. This book chapter describes the construction of the scales, their reliability and validity, scoring instructions, and implications of the tripartite division.

    To read this chapter, click here.

    The Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance Locus of Control Scales
    The 24-item scale is reproduced for use in research.

    All potential users are requested to email Dr. Levenson a brief description of the proposed study. At the completion of the study a summary of the findings should also be sent.

    To access the scales, click here.


    Levenson, H. (2003). Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: An integrative approach. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 13, 300-333.
    Dr. Levenson's latest thinking on how to integrate brief dynamic therapy with attachment theory, experiential learning, systems approaches, and cognitive awareness.

    To read this article, click here.

    Fosha, D. (2004). Brief integrative therapy comes of age: A commentary. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14, 66-92.
    "Hanna Levenson's (2003) article on time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP) is masterful, an extraordinary example of what I mean by the coming of age of brief integrative treatment. . . . . [W]e see a master therapist at work, struggling, being real, and eventually finding her way to transforming this patient so that she can like him-that is, so that he can like himself." (pp. 74-75)


    Levenson, H., & Strupp, H.H. (2007). Cyclical maladaptive patterns: Case formulation in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. In T.D. Eells (Ed.), Handbook of Psychotherapy Case Formulation, New York: Guilford, pp. 164-197.
    In this new edition of the Handbook, Dr. Levenson elaborates how to create a blueprint for the unfolding of the therapy and illustrates with a case of a pseudo-independent woman who is afraid to be vulnerable.

    To read this chapter, click here.

    Levenson, H. (2006). Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. In A.B. Rochlen (Ed.), Applying Counseling Theories: An Online, Case-based Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, pp. 75-90.
    This book chapter introduces the reader to the basics of interpersonal circularity and cyclical maladaptive patterns. The critical role of the therapists' countertransferential feelings for understanding the process is highlighted.

    To read this chapter, click here.


    Levenson, H., & Davidovitz, D. (2000). Brief Therapy prevalence and training: A national survey of psychologists. Psychotherapy, 37, 335-340.
    A survey of 1,250 psychologists indicates that almost all of the respondents perform some brief therapy, but half of those conducting brief therapy have not had training in it. Additional findings indicate theoretical orientation, gender, region, practice site, and setting are significantly related to the amount of brief therapy one does.

    To read this article, click here.

    Levenson, H., & Evans, S.A. (2000). The current state of brief therapy training in American Psychological Association-accredited graduate and internship programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 446-452.
    This survey of training directors indicates that almost all internship sites and a simple majority of graduate schools provide some brief therapy training. The implications of half of the graduate schools not offering training in this area are discussed and recommendations made to improve trainees' and professionals' knowledge base.

    To read this article, click here.

    Levenson, H., & Strupp, H.H. (1999). Recommendations for the future of training in brief dynamic psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 385-391.
    Recommendations (e.g., addressing therapists' attitudes toward brief therapy, studying training processes and outcomes, using video for teaching and supervision ) are set forth to foster improvements in training.

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